In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following  sequence:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144….

By definition, the first two Fibonacci numbers are 0 and 1, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two. Some sources omit the initial 0, instead beginning the sequence with two 1s.

The Fibonacci sequence is named after Leonardo of Pisa, who was known as Fibonacci (a contraction of filius Bonacci, “son of Bonaccio”). Fibonacci’s 1202 book Liber Abaci introduced the sequence to Western European mathematics, although the sequence was independently described in Indian mathematics and it is disputed which came first.

Here’s a good little movie explaining the Fibonacci Sequence…

Fibonacci numbers are used in the analysis of financial markets, in strategies such as Fibonacci retracement, and are used in computer algorithms such as the Fibonacci search technique and the Fibonacci heap data structure. The simple recursion of Fibonacci numbers has also inspired a family of recursive graphs called Fibonacci cubes for interconnecting parallel and distributed systems. They also appear in biological settings, such as branching in trees, arrangement of leaves on a stem, the fruit spouts of a pineapple, the flowering of artichoke, an uncurling fern and the arrangement of a pine cone.

Here’s another link to a movie that illustrates the mathematics within nature:

Link to website